Hydrometallurgical department - ВНИИХТ
Hydrometallurgical department

Directions of scientific research:

  • Development of technology for leaching valuable components from complex ores containing radioactive, rare, non-ferrous and noble metals.
  • Development of technologies for complex processing of phosphate ores and utilization of phosphate solutions into complex fertilizers
  • Development of technology for separating liquid and solid inhomogeneous technological systems and washing sediments.
  • Development of new intensive methods for processing hard-to-open brannerite, uranium-zirconium and other ores.
  • Development of equipment and new reagents for technological schemes.
  • Development of technology and equipment, as well as reagents for high-quality separation of suspensions in high-performance continuous column apparatus.
  • Development of new solvometallurgical processes for the extraction and processing of non-ferrous, rare (radioactive) and noble metals from primary and secondary raw materials that minimize or completely eliminate the spillway.
  • The employees of the department develop highly efficient, environmentally friendly, waste-free hydrometallurgical technologies for stripping and leaching low-grade, substandard, refractory ores and concentrates, technogenic raw materials containing uranium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, vanadium, REE, scandium, tantalum, niobium, gold, silver, platinum , manganese, phosphorus, etc. Highly efficient suspension separation systems have been developed using the latest achievements of world science.

When developing leaching technologies, the most advanced methods of leaching and process intensification are used: autoclave carbonate leaching; autoclaved sulfuric acid, autoclaved nitric acid. Processing technologies for arsenopyrite gold-bearing ores and concentrates are being improved using high-temperature autoclave processes. A unique technology is being developed for autogenous autoclave leaching of refractory uranium ores without the use of sulfuric acid and an oxidizing agent by using substandard sulfur pyrites and atmospheric oxygen. The foundations of the newest technology of impact on the initial pulp with a stream of accelerated electrons are being developed to increase the extraction of uranium and reduce the consumption of the oxidizer in leaching processes. Work continues on the integrated non-waste processing of apatite to obtain the maximum amount of marketable products. For separation processes, devices with a suspended sediment layer are being improved, suitable both for separating solids from liquids and for carrying out leaching processes without the participation of the gas phase. To obtain high performance in the separation of suspensions, the creation of granular polyacrid with increased activity is being mastered, and much more. The department has developed new combined technologies for processing uranium-containing raw materials, combining the processes of leaching and extraction (extraction leaching), grinding, leaching, extraction (IVEX-process), extraction and re-extraction, microemulsion extraction. One- and two-stage processes for processing waste from metallurgical production of copper, tin, molybdenum, tungsten, production of TVEL, magnets, superconductors, etc. have been proposed. to obtain nanostructured powders of metals or oxides.

According to the developments of the department’s employees and with their direct participation, industrial autoclaves with a large unit volume (125 m3) were developed and put into production in the USSR and abroad for both carbonate and acid leaching processes. In Stepnogorsk (Kazakhstan), 20 horizontal four-chamber autoclaves with mechanical pulp agitation (HA) equipped with self-priming turbine agitators, as well as 12 vertical pneumatic autoclaves (VA) for the carbonate process were introduced. In the city of Zhovti Vody (Ukraine), two HA and HA were introduced for the carbonate process and 12 HA (titanium) for the acid process. In Zwickau (Germany), 14 VAs have been introduced for carbonate leaching. VA has also been implemented in Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Experimental base

For laboratory tests, the department has an autoclave building equipped with apparatuses with a volume of 1.3.50 liters, an atmospheric leaching stand, a stand for column apparatus with pulsating mixing for pulp classification and sediment washing.